How to use APA style in writing dissertations?
When writing a dissertation and using other people’s ideas in it, you must give them credit. You can simply convey other people’s ideas in your own words or make a direct quote, but you still have to pay tribute to the resource from which you took the material. If you do not do this, it will be considered plagiarism, which is contrary to ethics and can lead to serious consequences, for example, you may not get a good grade for your work, or you may even be dismissed from work. The APA citation format was developed by the American Psychology Association for academic work in the social sciences. APA assumes a style of writing, not just citation, but this article focuses only on citing.
How to quote in dissertations in the style of APA in the “list of references”
Start with the name of the author. Like a quotation inside a text, it is necessary to begin the list of references with the indication of the author. But when quoting in the list of references you need only the initials of the author. First, enter the author’s last name, then put a comma and enter the initials of the author with dots. For example:
One author: “Smith, J.”
If you have more than one author, the quotation will be: “Smith, J., Davis, D., and Baxter, R.”
Specify the date of publication in the quote. The next step is to specify the publication date in brackets. For example:
“Smith, J., Davis, D., and Baxter, R. (1995).”
Specify the full title of the book. Now you need to specify the name of the book. Unlike other types of quotations, only the first word of the title, as well as the first word of the subtitle, must be written with a capital letter in ARA. The subtitle is spelled with a colon. All words in the title must be italicized. In our case, it will look like this:
“Smith, J., Davis, D., and Baxter, R. (1995). Peace in your own words: Why is this happening. ”In this case, the main heading is“ Peace in your own words ”, and the subtitle is“ Why it happens. Then put a point.
Indicate the city and state where the book was published. The city of publication, as a rule, is indicated on the cover page or on its reverse side. If several cities are listed, select the one closest to you. Use postal abbreviations and do not put dots between the letters. Put a comma between city and state. If the book was published in New York, the citation will be as follows:
“Smith, J., Davis, D., and Baxter, R. (1995). The world in your own words: Why is this happening. New York, NY. ”
How to write a research paper in MLA format?
MLA is a formatting and citation code widely used in academic and professional writing in English. If you want to write a scientific article or publication for a journal or university in the United States or another country that uses MLA formatting, then you should follow the stylistic rules described below.
attach a separate title page for a research paper in MLA format if your task
does not require it. In accordance with standard MLA formatting rules, a title
page or a separate title page is optional and should not be added to most
However, sometimes your teacher may specifically request a cover page for written work in the MLA format, especially if it is a voluminous job. For such cases, there are a number of directives regarding information that must be indicated on the cover page.
Align the title in the center. It should be strictly in the center of the line and recede one third from the top edge of the sheet.
Enter your full name. In the middle of the page write your name after the word “By” and align these words in the center.
At the end of the page, you must specify the name of the course for which you are writing this work, the name of the teacher and the date of delivery. This important task information should be placed at a distance of approximately two-thirds from the top of the sheet. Write the name and number of the course on the first line. On the next line, write the name of the teacher. On the last line, enter the date of this assignment in the following format: Month Day Digit Year God Digit.
MLA General Terms for research paper
to 2.5 cm (1 inch). The top, bottom, left and right margins should be 2.5 cm (1
Set double line spacing. Your work should be written with double line spacing from the very first page.
Use 12 font size. For the MLA format, the preferred one is 12 Times New Roman font size. Write the title in the upper left corner. The title should contain the same information as the title page if used. Include your full name, teacher’s name, course name, and date of assignment.
The heading “Bibliography” should be centered. Do not make it in italic, bold or underlined. Your bibliography should contain all the works and materials to which you directly refer to the text of your work. All written work in the MLA format should include a bibliography. Organize all cited material in alphabetical order. All cited works must be organized alphabetically by the name of the author.